The Arduino Ethernet Shield allows an Arduino board to connect to the internet. It is based on the Wiznet W5100ethernet chip (datasheet). The Wiznet W5100 provides a network (IP) stack capable of both TCP and UDP. It supports up to four simultaneous socket connections. Use the Ethernet library to write sketches which connect to the internet using the shield. The ethernet shield connects to an Arduino board using long wire-wrap headers which extend through the shield. This keeps the pin layout intact and allows another shield to be stacked on top.
The most recent revision of the board exposes the 1.0 pinout on rev 3 of the Arduino UNO board.
The Ethernet Shield has a standard RJ-45 connection, with an integrated line transformer and Power over Ethernet enabled.
There is an onboard micro-SD card slot, which can be used to store files for serving over the network. It is compatible with the Arduino Uno and Mega (using the Ethernet library). The onboard microSD card reader is accessible through the SD Library. When working with this library, SS is on Pin 4. The original revision of the shield contained a full-size SD card slot; this is not supported.
The shield also includes a reset controller, to ensure that the W5100 Ethernet module is properly reset on power-up. Previous revisions of the shield were not compatible with the Mega and need to be manually reset after power-up.
The current shield has a Power over Ethernet (PoE) module designed to extract power from a conventional twisted pair Category 5 Ethernet cable:
- IEEE802.3af compliant
- Low output ripple and noise (100mVpp)
- Input voltage range 36V to 57V
- Overload and short-circuit protection
- 9V Output
- High efficiency DC/DC converter: typ 75% @ 50% load
- 1500V isolation (input to output)